Health

Why do girls go monthly

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In the last days of the menstrual cycle (before the onset of menstruation), the endometrium is characterized by increased elasticity, as it prepares to receive a fertilized egg in the uterus.

If pregnancy does not occur, hormonal changes in the woman’s body, which leads to deterioration of the blood supply to the upper layer of the uterine mucosa, it stratifies and gradually rejected. With it comes out of the vagina and blood accumulated due to rupture of small blood vessels - menstruation occurs.

From the second day of menstruation simultaneously with the rejection of the upper layer, the endometrium begins to recover, it is updated. This process ends on the 5-7 day of the cycle. Next, the mucous layer begins to thicken and again prepares for the possible conception of a child.

At the same time, in the first half of the menstrual cycle, an egg cell matures in the ovaries. Around the middle of the cycle, a woman begins to ovulate: a ripe egg leaves the ovary and enters the fallopian tube. If conception occurs at this time, pregnancy begins, if not, the endometrium of the uterus is rejected again and the whole process begins again.

What are the selections?

Menstruation consists of blood, particles of mucous membrane and vaginal secretions and have a specific smell. Normally, their color can vary from red to dark brown, sometimes with clots. The volume of blood loss during menstruation, on average, for the entire period is about 250 ml (about a glass), and from 20 to 50 ml per day.

During life, the amount of discharge may vary. For example, in young girls, menstrual periods may be more abundant than in adult women. However, a dramatic change in their color, volume or duration should alert at any age.

If the vaginal bleeding is very abundant, prolonged (more than 7 days), there are a large number of clots in the discharge, or, on the contrary, they suddenly become very scarce, and also if the blood during the whole menstruation is only scarlet, this is a serious reason for an unscheduled visit to gynecologist.

How long do they last?

The menstrual cycle is a period that is considered from the first day of the month to the first day of the next. On average, for girls and women it is 28 days. However, for some the number of days of the cycle may differ: a variant of the norm is considered if it lasts from 21 to 35 days.

As you might guess from the name, the monthly only go once a month. But if the menstrual cycle is short, they may come 2 times, and if it is very long (35 days), menstruation may not occur every month.

Periodic menstrual bleeding lasts from 3 to 7 days.

The absence of menstruation in women of childbearing age can speak of:

  • serious illness
  • hormonal changes,
  • but most often - about the onset of pregnancy.

If the monthly stopped suddenly - should urgently go to the gynecologist to find out the reason.

At the age of about 55 years, menopause occurs - the last menstruation, after which the periodic bleeding in a woman stops. Menopause can occur at any age from 40 to 60 years.

At what age do menstruation occur in adolescents?

When should the first menses appear? The exact age can not be called, it depends on the individual characteristics of the organism. Usually, the first menstruation begins at the age of 11 to 14 years, however there are cases when it occurs very early - at 8, or, on the contrary, late - at 16 years.

More often than not, the girl has her first baby periods at about the same time as her mother. However, too early or late arrival of menstruation in adolescents often speaks of hormonal disorders, therefore in this case it is highly desirable for a young girl to visit a gynecologist.

Menstruation symptoms

What symptoms may indicate that menstruation is approaching? They are all different. Someone does not feel any changes in health, and learns about the beginning of menstruation only when it comes. However, most of the fair sex is still experiencing a number of characteristic signs.

Most often in girls before they have periods:

  • the breasts swell,
  • the lower abdomen starts to hurt,
  • they become irritable and hot-tempered.

These are symptoms of the so-called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which makes itself felt in a few days (from 2 to 14) before the onset of menstrual bleeding. According to statistics, at least 45% of women experience it.

In addition to the features listed above, during ICP may also appear:

  • anxiety, melancholy,
  • irritability,
  • aggression or depression
  • heartache,
  • panic attacks,
  • frequent urination,
  • heaviness in the lower body,
  • some even have bouts of vomiting and body temperature rises slightly.

However, if such manifestations are so strong that they interfere with focusing on work, or are accompanied by fever and severe pain, we recommend that you pay attention to your doctor.

What not to do during menstruation?

Menstruation is not a disease. On the contrary, it is a sign that the girl is in good health, and she can give birth and bear a child if she wishes. However, this does not mean that at this time you do not need to take care of your health.

During the period of menstruation it is very important to observe a number of restrictions in order not to harm your body and not to increase the bleeding.

Experiencing physical exertion

On critical days, it is highly desirable to limit physical exertion, and this applies to even the most notorious sports fans. Do not lift weights, run, do heavy physical work.

Why? Because all these actions increase blood flow to the pelvic organs and exacerbate bleeding from the vagina. Because of this, the hemoglobin level can drop significantly, a feeling of weakness, drowsiness, and fatigue will appear.

By the way, this is why in many schools it is allowed not to go to a physical education class when girls go through periods.

Lead a sex life

Lovers should suffer a few days to protect the body from pathogenic organisms. During menstruation, the mucosa of the uterus and vagina becomes very vulnerable, and the risk of catching the infection increases several times.

In addition, sex - it is also exercise, which are contraindicated in this period. Yes, and pleasure may not be, because the woman will be hard to relax because of the discharge and a special smell.

Take a hot bath, go to the bath, swim in the open pond

During menstruation, girls need to take better care of themselves, regularly wash with warm water to avoid the appearance of an unpleasant smell. You should not take a hot bath and even more so to visit the bath. There are cases when, after such visits, women began to bleed so heavily that they stopped with difficulty.

Also, during the period of menstrual bleeding, you should not bathe in the pools and especially in open reservoirs, as the risk of penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the vagina and uterus increases. Unfortunately, the use of tampons will not help provide the necessary protection.

Plan operations

Doctors warn that during the period of menstruation it is impossible to plan operations, even such seemingly insignificant ones as, for example, extraction of teeth, since these days coagulation of blood is deteriorating in women.

Ignoring this prohibition can lead to complications: large-scale, difficult to stop bleeding and large blood loss.

Follow a strict diet

In the days of menstruation you should not adhere to strict food restrictions, and even more so to starve or sit on liquid and mono diets. The girl should eat fully so that the body is not depleted due to the simultaneous loss of blood and malnutrition.

The result of the diet during menstruation can be a serious deterioration of health and fainting.

If a girl will take care of herself, eat right and not overwork, then critical days will pass with her without any negative consequences.

Video: what is menstruation and why is it needed?

What is menstruation and how does it look

Critical days are scientifically called “menstruation”, but they can be called differently monthly, and because of the regularity of the process, they are called regulatives. Teenage girls among themselves say "Menstruh came" or "the red days of the calendar began." Under all these names there is one very important process for the female body - the detachment of the endometrium (the inner mucous layer of the uterus) and its removal outside the cavity of the genital organ.

During menstruation, a bloody secret from red to maroon leaves the woman's genital tract, in which there may be small lumps and clots. In the last days of the monthly discharge look like dark daub.

Many representatives of the fair sex during critical days complain of nagging pain in the lower abdomen and in the lumbar region, and at this time the chest may swell, weakness and apathy appear. Similar symptoms provoke hormonal changes that occur at this time in the body, if the pain is tolerable, then this refers to the variant of the norm.

In adolescents aged 11-14, the first menstruation occurs, the task of moms is to explain to their daughters before this time that this is a physiological process, and the regula need girls for the renewal of the body and the possibility of having children later.

If a girl is actively involved in sports or lives in a harsh climate, the first “red days” can come to her at the age of 15-16, this is a variant of the norm.

For 1-2 years after the first regul there may be periodic delays or, on the contrary, frequent periods. This is due to the formation of hormonal background, so worry about it is not worth it. Then hormones come into balance, and the menstruation cycle is stabilized, on average it is 28 days, but a deviation of +/- 7 days is considered normal. The discharge itself takes 3-7 days. In case of any deviations from the norm, girls should immediately visit a gynecologist, since it is the regularity of critical days and the nature of the discharge that can tell a lot about the health of the female body.

While a woman has her period, it is believed that she is capable of conceiving and bearing offspring. After 45 years, the ovaries are gradually depleted, and the menstrual function begins to come to an end. In premenopause, critical days come irregularly, and eventually disappear altogether. Thus, the reproductive function of a woman is completed, and menopause comes.

Where does the blood come from

When menstruation occurs, the internal mucous layer is removed from the uterus, which was not useful in the previous cycle due to the absence of pregnancy. The process of rejection is accompanied by damage to the blood vessels, which explains the presence of blood in the discharge. Since menstrual blood contains a large amount of anticoagulants, it does not clot and goes out freely.

Why do women have menstruation - functions of discharge

During regulation in women, the inner epithelial layer in the uterus is updated monthly, undergoing irreversible changes and rejected as unnecessary as possible. In the new cycle, the process of “building up” the endometrium is restarted, during which the organism prepares for a possible conception. To put it in simple terms, then menstruation is a reminder to a woman about her main purpose, to be a mother.

In addition, the monthly need to perform the following functions:

  • update. Since the inner uterine layer consists of epithelial cells, which are peculiar to the process of desquamation, like the cells of the skin, intestinal mucosa and bronchi, periods allow cleaning the uterus from old and detached endometrium. After critical days, the uterus is clean and ready for growing a new epithelial layer,
  • biological protection. There is a theory that a functional uterine layer is able to recognize defective processes in a fertilized egg (chromosomal abnormalities, defective DNA), as a result of which it deliberately impedes its implantation, preventing the "wrong" pregnancy. Defective zygote dies and is brought out together with the detached epithelium during the next regulation.

How are the periods normal

Normally, women of reproductive age should have regular menstruation, which occur without acute and painful symptoms for 3-7 days, most often 4-5 days. By periodicity, normal periods should begin every 21-35 days. Optimally, when they arrive every 28 days, but a deviation of 7 days in one direction or the other is acceptable.

Number of discharge

The amount of discharge for the entire period of menstruation should not exceed 100 ml. Blood loss of this volume will not harm the body and does not significantly affect the well-being of women. The intensity of the menstrual bleeding allows the body to promptly compensate for blood loss due to its dilution and the release of additional blood cells from the depot.

Externally, menstrual flow is different from any other, including uterine bleeding. At the beginning of menstruation, they consist of pieces of the endometrium and epithelial cells, which come out in the form of mucous blood strands and clots. In recent days, the regul is exclusively blood without impurities, its amount gradually decreases. The color of the secretions is dark red to burgundy; they may have a light iron smell. If the discharge stinks rotten meat or fish, there is an admixture of pus or frothy consistency, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Monthly should not go too plentiful, the amount of discharge can be controlled by the number of used daily hygiene products. Normally, one gasket should be enough for at least 2 hours, if it fills up faster, it is necessary to consult a doctor.

One should be attentive to hygiene during menstruation, gaskets should be changed every 3-4 hours, since various pathogenic bacteria can very quickly develop in the blood, causing vulvovaginitis and other inflammatory processes in the reproductive organs.

What deviations may be

Monthly in normal conditions almost always follow the same “scenario”: they have the same duration, volume and intensity of discharge, associated symptoms and sensations. If any of these parameters deviates from the norm, and the menstrual irregularity appears several cycles in a row, you should consult with your doctor, since systematic deviations from the norm can be a sign of an existing pathology.

In order to detect violations in the cycle in time, it is recommended that all women of reproductive age maintain a menstrual calendar, where not only the days of the arrival of regular regulations, but also their own feelings during this period are recorded. The girls should be alerted by the following changes in the cycle:

  • the duration of the menstrual cycle has become more than 35 days or less than 21,
  • in the middle of the cycle, uterine bleeding or scanty smear appeared,
  • critical days come at different intervals,
  • An abundant menstruation began, during which the gasket is not enough for 2 hours,
  • if the spotting goes over a week,
  • if there are no 3 months, and the pregnancy test is negative,
  • if the regulators are very scarce and pass in 1-2 days,
  • during menstruation, the lower abdomen hurts a lot, and the woman loses her ability to work,
  • body temperature rises
  • if premenstrual syndrome is strongly pronounced.

Only a gynecologist will be able to establish the exact reasons for the woman’s menstrual irregularities. After a number of diagnostic measures, the doctor selects an individual course of treatment and gives general recommendations to the patient.

What happens to the body

During the entire menstrual cycle, hormonal and physiological changes occur in the body, all of them go cyclically and sequentially. Conventionally, the cycle can be divided into the following phases:

  • follicular. Its beginning is considered to be the first day of menstruation, and it ends with the onset of ovulation, approximately 11-16 days of the cycle. During menstruation, the exfoliated endometrium is removed, and in its place a new epithelial layer begins to grow, while the woman may feel worse, she feels unwell and a breakdown. At this time, in the ovary, under the influence of estrogen, the dominant follicle begins to mature, when it breaks, the cycle enters the next phase,
  • ovulation. At this time, the follicle had matured and burst, an egg cell came out of it, completely ready for fertilization. It moves through the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, where it is supposed to be fixed in the endometrium under the condition of fertilization. Овуляция происходит приблизительно в середине цикла, это время наиболее благоприятное для зачатия,
  • лютеиновая. На месте лопнувшего фолликула начинает образовываться желтое тело, это временная железа, вырабатывающая прогестерон, гормон беременности. Уровень эстрогена в этой фазе постепенно снижается. Before menstruation, that is, in the second half of the cycle, the inner layer of the uterus is characterized by high elasticity, which is an important parameter for normal implantation of the embryo. If fertilization occurs, approximately a week after that, the constantly dividing zygote is fixed in the endometrium. The state of pregnancy from now until the formation of the placenta is maintained by the hormone hCG. If the egg cell in this cycle is not fertilized or it happened with a “mistake”, the fetal egg is not fixed, the level of estrogen and progesterone falls, and the endometrium without the support of hormones begins to break down and flake off. So comes the new menstruation and new cycle.

All processes during the menstruation cycle are controlled by hormones, so it is very important that the hormonal balance in the female body is always normal, otherwise the help of not only a gynecologist, but also an endocrinologist may be needed.

Monthly does it hurt?

Many factors can affect a woman’s feelings during her period:

  • genetic predisposition - Some representatives of the weaker sex receive as a “gift” from mothers and grandmothers painful sensations or their complete absence during regulation,
  • Lifestyle - stress, irregularity of intimate life, unhealthy diet, low or excessive physical activity can aggravate the condition of a woman on critical days,
  • general health - if a woman is ill, has had a cold or she has exacerbated chronic diseases, then her period will only aggravate the already poor state of health.

Since during regul hormonal changes in the female body are quite intensive, then the sensations of women can be different depending on the day of menstruation:

  • on the first day, together with copious secretions, a aching or nagging pain in the lower abdomen may appear. Such sensations are explained by contractions of the walls of the uterus, which by such actions tries to push out the detached endometrium. At this time, cardiovascular, nervous and digestive pathologies may escalate. Due to vasoconstriction, blood pressure can drop, especially in hypotension. Due to hormonal changes, mood deteriorates, and due to the release of active prostaglandins, the tone of the intestine decreases, and disorders arise. At this time, it is recommended to refrain from sex, as there is a high risk of infection for both partners,
  • from 3 to 6 days, the volume of discharge decreases, the woman's psycho-emotional state normalizes, she occasionally feels mild pain and other symptoms,
  • with the end of the regula, the woman begins to feel great, not only is her well-being improved, but also her mood, her sexual desire increases.

If pain during menstruation affects the performance of a woman, then pain relievers can be used as directed by the doctor.

It can be Paracetamol or Ibuprofen, it also effectively helps in relieving spasms of a warm shower or a heating pad. If the pain does not relieve even drugs, it is imperative to consult a doctor, because these symptoms can be a sign of serious diseases. Timely diagnosis and treatment will help not only make life easier for the woman, but in some cases will save her.

About hormones and their effects on menstruation

Speaking about why girls go monthly, it is impossible not to think about hormones. There is a definite relationship between the menstrual cycle and the hormonal background.

At the age of 12-14 years, girls begin their first periods. Due to their appearance by changing hormonal levels. From this point on, the hormone concentration (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing) changes at different phases of the cycle.

They are produced by the pituitary gland and force the ovaries to produce progesterone and estrogen, from which the process of preparing the uterus and mammary glands for the possible conception and further development of the embryo is curled.

At the first stage, the concentration of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) in the blood decreases, due to which menses appear. At this point, the active production of follicle-stimulating hormones begins, the highest value is achieved in the middle of the cycle.

When the follicle acquires maximum size, the ovaries intensively produce estrogen. This increases the level of luteinizing hormone and ovulation occurs.

After completion of this process, the concentration of progesterone increases. Its main task is to prepare the genital organ for possible conception. If fertilization has not occurred, then the level of estrogen and progesterone decreases, and at this point the next menstruation comes.

During pregnancy, the fetal membrane begins to produce human chorionic gonadotropin. This hormone in the absence of fertilization in the body can not be.

For more information about why girls go through the month, we recommend reading in a separate article on our website.

What nature has come up with

Endometrium is the uterine mucosa consisting of basal and functional layers. The first of these is basic and always stays in place, regardless of the phase of the cycle. The surface layer matures every month and is torn away along with the blood that flows from the destroyed vessels. As a result, women appear menstrual.

This mechanism was invented by nature because the main function of the body of the weaker sex is procreation. Every month there is a preparation for pregnancy.

Due to this, the fertilized egg passes through the fallopian tubes and penetrates into the reproductive organ, penetrating into its mucous membrane. Here in the future, the fetus develops before the onset of labor.

To understand where the menstruation comes from and why they come every month, you need to take into account that the uterus must be constantly cleaned for successful fertilization. Old cells for normal development of the embryo are not suitable. Therefore, at the end of the cycle, in the absence of conception, the functional layer of the endometrium is detached. As a result, critical days come. After their completion, the functional layer of the reproductive organ begins to recover again.

What happens in the body of a girl

The appearance of menstruation in a girl is considered a normal physiological process. Bleeding from the vagina in women of childbearing age is observed monthly, but only if the fertilization of the egg has not occurred.

The cycle of menstruation proceeds in several stages. At the initial stage, the uterine mucosa thickens, thus preparing for the attachment of the ovum. At the same time in the ovaries the egg cell, which leaves the follicle in the middle of the cycle, matures. Ovulation occurs - conception is possible during this period. If a sperm cell is encountered on the way of the egg, fertilization will occur and the ovum will go to the uterus for fastening to the mucous membrane as soon as possible. After this, critical days no longer appear, as pregnancy begins.

If conception did not occur, then at the end of the cycle, the endometrium that has reached its maximum thickness begins to exfoliate and leaves the body along with blood secretions. This explains where monthly menses come from.

The cycle for each woman is set individually and varies from 21 to 35 days. Deviations upward or downward indicate impaired reproductive function. In this case, you need a medical consultation. If you do not take any measures and do not react in time to such changes in the body, there is a risk of serious complications - up to infertility.

The first menstruation (menarche) appear in girls in adolescence. They indicate that the body is ready for fertilization. After that, the cycle is gradually established. Reguli begin to come monthly at the same time. At the same time, certain processes take place in the body every month, due to which the reproductive organ is prepared for fertilization. The appearance of critical days indicates that the pregnancy has not come. About these features of the reproductive system, every girl should know.

The question of how to go monthly is quite complicated. Therefore, we recommend that you read more detailed information about what happens to a woman in the body during menstruation.

Physiology of critical days

All eggs from the very birth of a girl are located in the ovaries. Monthly in the ovary matures egg. It passes through the fallopian tube, heading for the uterus. This period is called ovulation. These days a woman can conceive a child. If there is a sperm cell, then it merges with the egg cell. After that, the fertilized zygote moves into the uterus, in its mucous membrane. A month before ovulation, the layer of epithelium grows. Then he can take the embryo.

If fertilization is absent, the mucous layer is rejected and with the egg comes out. So passes menstruation. People still talk about critical days like this: “The uterus is crying that a pregnancy has not taken place”.

Most girls with the onset of menstruation experience pain that gives the lower back, labia majora.

Monthly can pass and painlessly, but still a woman will feel discomfort in the pubic part.

During menstruation, the girl has a change in mental state. She becomes irritable, hot-tempered, can hysteria and radiate negative emotions.

The singers know that during the period of menstruation it is not necessary to strain the vocal cords too much (this applies to the first two days), because the voice very quickly sets in this period. If this happens, it will take a long time to recover and with the help of a phoniatrist.

Everyone knows what is monthly, but how do they pass, how do they appear? When menstruation occurs, the adjustment of the female body occurs, it removes all that is unnecessary and is cleared. A rash on the skin, drowsiness, lethargy, an unpleasant odor that comes from the body and mouth may appear, nausea and diarrhea are sometimes observed. Usually, the girls before the menstruation appear on the face more acne, acne. If you notice that the face is covered with pimples, and you constantly want to sleep, you can talk about the approach of menstruation.

Features of the female body

Health workers say women live longer, are healthier, more resilient, and all due to two important factors:

  • menstrual cleansing happens every month,
  • they know how to throw out negative emotions. It helps to maintain their own health and get rid of negativity.

Every woman asked many questions concerning critical days: why girls have menstruation at such an early age, why they go monthly, why there is severe pain, why spotting cannot go out at once?

There are answers to such questions, and they are quite simple: when a girl's menstrual cycle begins, the body prepares a place for an infant. If conception did not take place, the egg cell perishes, therefore all preparations that took place earlier turn out to be meaningless. The body is cleared, a new egg-growing takes place, a place for the child is prepared anew.

We can not resist the laws of nature, with regard to menstruation, but we are able to cope with those moments that are not quite pleasant for us. Do not take menstruation as a punishment.

Phases of the menstrual cycle

There are several phases of the menstrual cycle, each of which is characterized by changes occurring inside the ovaries:

  1. Menstrual phase. This period is directly menstruation, the phase begins on the first day of menstruation. At this time, the layering of the endometrium is rejected in the uterus and comes out in the form of bleeding. The duration of the menstrual phase can vary between 7-22 days. It all depends on the maturation of the follicle, which dominates, and this is already determined by the characteristics of women.
  2. Follicular phase. Until ovulation begins, the hormone estrogen is the main thing in the female body. It contributes to the rapid growth of the endometrial layer and creates positive conditions for the reception of the egg, which is fertilized. Inside the germ cells of the woman, follicles begin to grow. As they mature, the dominant follicle is defined, which has an egg cell ready for fertilization. A few days before ovulation, estrogen begins to be produced in the body. Approximately one day before this period, a peak occurs, as a result of which the luteinizing hormone is activated. It is he who helps to free a mature egg after the rupture of the follicle. This ends the follicular phase.
  3. Ovulatory phase. This phase of the cycle is considered the most responsible. An egg cell that has matured moves to the sperm for fertilization. Her path passes through the fallopian tubes. If the cycle has 28 days, then the onset of ovulation occurs on day 14. Each woman's menstruation cycle has a different duration, so ovulation usually occurs 11-16 days before the next menstruation begins. As the egg moves through the fallopian tubes, the endometrial layer grows, it becomes thicker. From the moment when the egg came out of the follicle and got to the uterus, it takes about 4 days. If a girl wants to get pregnant, then the egg must be fertilized during the first day after the onset of ovulation. Otherwise, the process of degeneration begins.
  4. Luteal phase. The ovulatory phase is over, and hormone production begins. Follicles turn into a yellow body. Its cells produce progesterone, which contributes to the growth of the endometrial layer. This is necessary for the further implantation of the egg, which is fertilized. If the pregnancy did not materialize, then after 2 weeks the corpus luteum dies. At the same time, the endometrium stops growing, the level of progesterone, the hormone responsible for pregnancy, decreases, and the menstrual phase begins. It is for this reason that there are monthly periods, and these phases are repeated every month.

Primary dysmenorrhea is peculiar only to those who did not give birth?

Why do women sometimes have so painful periods? It is claimed that severe pains occur in girls who have not yet given birth. Usually, the manifestation of pain appears 1.5 years after the first menstrual periods began.

Pain occurs some time before menstruation, such a painful process may persist throughout the first day of the cycle. The pain gives in the lower back, lower abdomen, and you can characterize these feelings as spasmodic or cramping. In addition to spasms, during menstruation may occur:

  • weakness of the whole organism
  • diarrhea,
  • nausea,
  • headaches.

To date, it is impossible to give an exact answer to the question: why do girls have menstrual periods before childbirth are accompanied by severe pain, and after birth, everything normalizes? But most women talk about the disappearance of pain after childbirth.

If a girl does not plan a pregnancy, then she can treat the monthly pain, using different methods:

  1. Drug therapy. To cure the primary algomenorrhea, use drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. These include Butadion, Brufen, Indomethacin, Naprosin. In addition to the above tools, you can also use acupuncture or electrophoresis of novocaine. Such methods have proven their effectiveness.
  2. Hormonal contraceptives. This method is suitable for those girls whose sex life is quite active. It can be said that this is 2 in 1 - anesthetic and contraceptive. Among the drugs can be distinguished Minulet, Silest, Mersilon, Marvelon, Femoden.
  3. Self help. For critical days, a girl can apply various methods to help avoid severe pain.

Independent methods to reduce pain, are as follows:

  1. A few days before the menstruation cycle, a heating pad can be applied to the abdomen. With the warmth of the hot water bottle, the pain in the focal area will subside a bit.
  2. At bedtime, a girl can take a valerian tincture, but this can only be done in the second phase of the cycle.
  3. You can take antispasmodics, such as No-shpu.

In the period of the onset of menstruation, the intensity of active sports should be reduced, especially when the second phase of the menstrual cycle begins. You should think about the rest and walk more in the fresh air.

Useful tips

During the monthly you should not lift heavy bags, do a lot of active sports. It should be more rest, walk, so that the body was calm. Strongly contraindicated for girls in the days of menstruation to engage in the gym, jump, ride a bike, run. Many will ask: why? As a result of such movements, the pain sensations become stronger, the bleeding increases (this happens when a girl takes a hot bath or allows herself physical exertion). Also, due to excessive physical exertion, blood is thrown into the pelvis, namely in its internal cavity.

We can say that athletes, singers for the time of critical days always rest. But besides contraindications women can still do something? У многих юных девушек возникает подобный вопрос, ответ на который они со временем и сами находят.

Во время менструального цикла женщинам рекомендуется:

  1. Каждый день проводить гигиенические процедуры, принимать душ. Do not forget about the hygiene of the genitals that are outside. This is especially important for girls, because at the exit from the vagina they have a virgin membrane. Girls use only pads that collect bleeding; they should not use tampons. The pads are going to putrid bacteria and multiply fairly quickly, there is a bad smell. To putrid organisms do not infect the genitals, the girl must often change the lining material: every 3 hours.
  2. Good sleep, nice walks in the fresh air.
  3. You can attend all lectures, classes except physical education.

What is monthly? For girls and women, menstruation is a normal physiological process, which suggests that you can get pregnant. When a girl has a monthly cycle, she becomes a girl. After 50 years, women no longer go through their periods, because at this age they have a reproductive function.

What is monthly and how do they appear?

About once a month, the inner layer of the uterus in the woman's body thickens. This is necessary so that the fertilized egg can be taken and then taken out. However, if the pregnancy does not occur, then the endometrium, the inner layer of the uterus, exfoliates and, together with the blood, leaves the uterus. That is why there are periods. This bleeding is also called menstruation.

The first such periods begin, as a rule, in girls in adolescence, which is called transitional. It is usually 12-16 years old. However, there are small deviations in the one and in the other side. There is an opinion that the healthier the body, the earlier the menses begin.

After the first menstrual bleeding, the second can begin only after a few months. This should not be a cause for anxiety and fear - the monthly cycle will be established over time. It equals approximately 28 days - ideally. Just so many days should pass, starting from the first day of one month until the very next day. In general, the monthly cycle may be slightly less or slightly more.

The duration of menstruation is approximately from 2 to 7 days. This is considered to be the norm. It is worth referring to a gynecologist if the monthly periods go more than a week and turn out to be too painful and abundant.

In the intervals between menstruations, small bleeding may occur - this should also cause alarm, be the reason for the visit to the doctor.

Signs of menstruation

In general, women anticipate the approach of critical days. Such a manifestation is called premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Signs of it are observed two to three days before the onset of menstrual bleeding and is characterized by increased excitability, emotionality, vulnerability, depressive moods, tearfulness. Women also during this period may feel very tired, aching back, aching lower abdomen.

Immediately menstruation is also often accompanied by unpleasant symptoms: back pain, fever, cramps and pain in the lower abdomen. The mammary glands swell, increase in volume and also become painful.

To lead sex during menstruation is not advised. This is contrary to the rules of hygiene and significantly increases the risk of ingestion of infection. On top of that, the occurrence of critical days does not guarantee safe sex, since it remains possible to get pregnant during this period.

A huge impact on the menstrual cycle have stressful situations, heavy physical work load, taking potent drugs, for example, birth control pills.

Menstruations are absent during pregnancy and end naturally by the age of 50, when women first start menopause and then menopause.

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